Ernie Ball Music Man signature electric guitars allow guitar players from all over the world to play the same instruments as their heroes. Legendary and innovative artists like Albert Lee, Steve Lukather, and most recently, St. Vincent, were all active participants in their signature guitar design process, and they can all be seen regularly playing them onstage.

Our John Petrucci signature guitar series has been one of our most popular. The first Ernie Ball Music Man John Petrucci signature guitar, the JP6, was released in 2001. Since then, we’ve released 9 amazing electric guitars, culminating with the Monarchy Series Majesty. Each model has unique features and characteristics, so we suggest reading through this buying guide before deciding which one to purchase. Additionally, we’ve just released a new film that captures our collaboration with John on his Majesty signature guitar, which you can watch right here.

John Petrucci Signature Electric Guitar Series Buying Guide

Monarchy Majesty

Newly updated for 2017, the Monarchy Series Majesty is constructed with a through-neck design of mahogany and flame maple top, and is available in 4 rich translucent finishes. The Monarchy Series Majesty comes with chrome or black hardware featuring a custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo bridge and Schaller locking tuners.

Buy this if you want the Majesty with a gloss-finish top and matte-finish back, updated body shield and DiMarzio Sonic Ecstasy pickups.

JP6

JP6The JP6 is the original John Petrucci signature guitar, and features a basswood body. It also features a scooped forearm contour that helps keep your arm, wrist and elbow in natural position for maximum playing comfort. It has a smooth modern tremolo system with an optional acoustic piezo bridge system, and a very flat 15-inch neck radius.

Buy this if you want the original JP model, upgradable options, a basswood body for even tonal response, and a rosewood fretboard with 15″ radius.

JP6 BFR

JP6 BFRThe John Petrucci BFR (Ball Family Reserve) 6 model refined the original JP6 in an effort to get more sustain and thick lead tones. This was achieved by replacing the basswood body with mahogany, alder and maple. We also added flame or quilt maple top (or koa top, shown), mahogany tone block with maple top and alder body, and standardized the piezo option. A polyester finished neck replaced an oil and wax finish.

Buy this if you want the classic JP6 electric guitar design with some bells and whistles, and an alder body, maple top, and mahogany tone block for strong low end and focused mids.

JPX

JPXThe JPX electric guitar model features the same great trio of premium quality tonewoods as the BFR with the addition of 19 hollow body chambers, allowing for a more resonant response from the guitar. The sound is unique and slightly more “alive” than previous JP models.  Other changes include an extended recessed lower cutaway for easier playing from the 12 frets to the 24th.  A five-way pickup selector switch also simplifies access to usable tones and minimizes the amount of controls on the guitar. The neck is the same as the JP6 and BFR with a 15” radius.

Buy this if you want a chambered alder body with maple top and mahogany tone block, ebony fretboard with jumbo frets, and a 5 way pickup selector switch.

JPXI

JPXIThe JPXI electric guitar is similar to the JPX but does not have the hollow chambers. This creates a less airy more focused sound.  The JPXI neck is flatter than any previous models at a 20″ fretboard radius.

Buy this if you want strong low end and a focused midrange sound, high fret access, and a flatter 20″ neck radius ebony fretboard.

JP12

JP12This electric guitar model shares features with the JPXI but has a basswood body & maple top. The basswood is a bit lighter and provides a tonality similar to the original JP model. This guitar retains the very flat feeling neck shape.

Buy this if you want the 20” neck radius, a basswood body with maple top and mahogany tone block for strong low ends and sizzling highs.

JP13

JP15

This electric guitar is the first JP model to feature the new boost circuit and Dimarzio Illuminator pickups. The JP13 boasts a basswood body with mahogany tone block and maple top. The boost and coil split functions are activated via push/push knobs offering ease of operation and tonal variation.  Illuminator pickups are much bolder with added clarity and presence.  The neck is a little less flat than previous models, with a comfortable 17” radius.

Buy this if you want the JP12 body style but with less-flat neck, and a preamp circuit with solo boost for enhanced tonal range. 

JP15

JP15

The 15 model electric guitar is similar to the JP13 with active electronics and boost function, but has a lightweight African mahogany body with figured roasted maple top.  The addition of mahogany with maple brings back the robust sound of the BFR with an expressive and thicker lead tone.

Buy this if you want JP13 design elements, a roasted maple top and neck with a completely mahogany body.

JP16

JP 16Retaining all the electronic features of the JP13 and JP15, the JP16 combines elements from the original JP6 electric guitar. It has a basswood body and forearm scoop, with the addition of a Floyd Rose 1000 Pro double locking tremolo system  The sound of the guitar is a little more focused dynamically with greater emphasis in the mid to high range frequencies.

Buy this if you want JP6 design elements + Floyd Rose 1000 Pro double locking tremolo system, 20 db gain boost and DiMarzio Illuminator pickups.

Majesty

Majesty

This unique guitar body shape was inspired by sports cars and running stallions, with sleek lines and modern aesthetics. You get uninhibited access to all 24 frets on both sides of the neck. The sound of the Majesty incorporates all the great tones from the past models with a clean preamp and 20db boost.  This is truly the most advanced design of all Petrucci models.

Buy this if you want a sleek, modern feel and performance; the Lamborghini of signature electric guitars.

Artisan Majesty

Artisan Majesty

The Artisan Majesty is constructed with a through-neck design of mahogany and laser etched flame maple top, and is available in 5 rich translucent finishes. The Artisan comes with gold hardware featuring a custom John Petrucci Music Man Piezo floating tremolo bridge and Schaller locking tuners.

Buy this if you want the Majesty with a trans finish on mahogany, and a slightly warmer tone.

Technical Specifications

ModelSpecs
Size
JP612-1/2" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.8 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JP6 BFR12-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JPX12-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JPXI12-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JP1212-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JP1312-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JP1512-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
JP1612-3/8" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (31.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
Majesty12" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (30.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
Artisan Majesty12" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (30.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
Monarchy Majesty 612" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 37" long (30.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 94.0 cm long)
Monarchy Majesty 712" wide, 1-3/4" thick, 38" long (30.4 cm wide, 4.5 cm thick, 96.5 cm long)
Weight
JP67 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP6 7-string7 lbs, 8 oz (3.40 kg) - varies slightly
JP6 BFR8 lbs, 7 oz (3.83 kg) - varies slightly
JP6 BFR 7-string8 lbs, 11 oz (3.94 kg) - varies slightly
JPX7 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JPX 7-string7 lbs, 8 oz (3.40 kg) - varies slightly
JPXI7 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JPXI 7-string7 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP127 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP12 7-string7 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP137 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP13 7-string7 lbs, 8 oz (3.40 kg) - varies slightly
JP157 lbs, 4 oz (3.29 kg) - varies slightly
JP15 7-string7 lbs, 8 oz (3.40 kg) - varies slightly
JP167 lbs, 12 oz (3.52 kg) - varies slightly
JP16 7-string8 lbs, 0 oz (3.63 kg) - varies slightly
Majesty6 lbs, 12 oz (3.06 kg) - varies slightly
Majesty 7-string7 lbs, 3 oz (3.24 kg) - varies slightly
Artisan Majesty6 lbs, 12 oz (3.06 kg) - varies slightly
Artisan Majesty 7-string7 lbs, 3 oz (3.24 kg) - varies slightly
Monarchy Majesty 66 lbs, 12 oz (3.06 kg) - varies slightly
Monarchy Majesty 77 lbs, 3 oz (3.24 kg) - varies slightly
Body Wood
JP6Basswood
JP6 BFRAlder with bookmatched maple top and mahogany Tone Block; optional Koa top with completely mahogany body
JPXChambered Alder with maple top and mahogany Tone Block
JPXIAlder with maple top and mahogany Tone Block
JP12Basswood with maple top and mahogany Tone Block
JP13Basswood with maple top and mahogany Tone Block
JP15African mahogany with roasted maple top
JP16Basswood
MajestyBasswood with maple top and mahogany through neck
Artisan MajestyAfrican mahogany with maple top and mahogany through neck
Monarchy Majesty 6African mahogany with maple top and mahogany through neck
Monarchy Majesty 7African mahogany with maple top and mahogany through neck
Body Finish
JP6High gloss polyester
JP6 BFRHigh gloss polyester
JPXHigh gloss polyester
JPXIHigh gloss polyester
JP12High gloss polyester
JP13High gloss polyester
JP15Matte
JP16High gloss polyester
MajestyMatte
Artisan MajestyMatte
Monarchy Majesty 6Glossy Front, Matte Back
Monarchy Majesty 7Glossy Front, Matte Back
Bridge
JP6Standard - Custom John Petrucci Music Man® floating tremolo of chrome plated, hardened steel with solid steel saddles; Optional - Piezo bridge with solid steel saddles
JP6 BFRCustom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo of chrome plated, hardened steel with solid steel saddles; Optional Koa top comes with gold hardware
JPXCustom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of hardened steel with solid steel saddles. Black finish
JPXICustom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of chrome plated, hardened steel with solid steel saddles.
JP12Custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of chrome plated, hardened steel with solid steel saddles.
JP13Custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of chrome plated, hardened steel with solid steel saddles.
JP15Custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of chrome plated, hardened steel with stainless steel saddles.
JP16Floyd Rose® black 1000 Series Pro locking floating tremolo with fine tuners in black finish
MajestyCustom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of chrome plated, hardened steel with stainless steel saddles
Artisan MajestyCustom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo, made of gold plated, hardened steel with stainless steel saddles
Monarchy Majesty 6Custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo
Monarchy Majesty 7Custom John Petrucci Music Man® Piezo floating tremolo
Neck Radius
JP615" (38.1 cm)
JP6 BFR15" (38.1 cm)
JPX15" (38.1 cm)
JPXI20" (50.8 cm)
JP1220" (50.8 cm)
JP1317" (43.2 cm)
JP1517" (43.2 cm)
JP1617" (43.2 cm)
Majesty17" (43.2 cm)
Artisan Majesty17" (43.2 cm)
Monarchy Majesty 617" (43.2 cm)
Monarchy Majesty 717" (43.2 cm)
Headstock Size
JP6Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JP6 BFROnly 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JPXOnly 6-7/8" (17.5 cm) long
JPXIOnly 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JP12Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JP13Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JP15Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
JP16Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
MajestyAngled & Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
Artisan MajestyAngled & Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
Monarchy Majesty 6Angled & Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
Monarchy Majesty 7Angled & Only 5-7/8" (14.9 cm) long
Frets
JP624 - High profile, wide, Stainless Steel
JP6 BFR24 - High profile, wide, Stainless Steel
JPX24 - Jumbo profile, wide, Stainless Steel
JPXI24 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
JP1224 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
JP1324 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
JP1524 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
JP1624 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
Majesty24 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
Artisan Majesty24 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
Monarchy Majesty 624 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
Monarchy Majesty 724 - Medium Jumbo profile, Stainless Steel
Neck Width
JP61-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP6 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JP6 BFR1-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP6 BFR 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JPX1-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JPX 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JPXI1-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JPXI 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JP121-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP12 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JP131-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP13 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-7/16" (61.9 mm) at last fret
JP151-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP15 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
JP161-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
JP16 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
Majesty1-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
Majesty 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
Artisan Majesty1-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
Artisan Majesty 7-string1-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
Monarchy Majesty 61-11/16" (43.0 mm) at nut, 2-1/4" (57.2 mm) at last fret
Monarchy Majesty 71-7/8" (47.6 mm) at nut, 2-19/32" (65.9 mm) at last fret
Neck Wood
JP6Maple
JP6 BFRMahogany
JPXMahogany
JPXIMahogany
JP12Mahogany
JP13Mahogany
JP15Roasted Maple
JP16Roasted Maple
MajestyHonduran Mahogany
Artisan MajestyHonduran Mahogany
Monarchy Majesty 6Honduran Mahogany
Monarchy Majesty 7Honduran Mahogany
Fingerboard
JP6Rosewood
JP6 BFRRosewood; Optional Koa top comes with ebony fretboard
JPXEbony
JPXIEbony
JP12Ebony
JP13Rosewood
JP15Select roasted maple neck
JP16Smokey Ebony
MajestyEbony
Artisan MajestyEbony
Monarchy Majesty 6Ebony
Monarchy Majesty 7Ebony
Fret Markers
JP6Custom JP Shields
JP6 BFRCustom JP Shields
JPXCustom JPX Inlays
JPXICustom JPXI Inlays
JP12Custom JP12 Inlays
JP13Custom JP13 Inlays
JP15Custom JP15 Inlays
JP16Custom JP16 Inlays
MajestyCustom JP Majesty Inlays
Artisan MajestyCustom JP Majesty Inlays
Monarchy Majesty 6Custom JP Majesty Inlays
Monarchy Majesty 7Custom JP Majesty Inlays
Neck Finish
JP6Gunstock oil and hand-rubbed special wax blend
JP6 BFRHigh gloss polyester
JPXHigh gloss polyester
JPXIHigh gloss polyester
JP12High gloss polyester
JP13High gloss polyester
JP15Gunstock oil and hand-rubbed special wax blend
JP16Gunstock oil and hand-rubbed special wax blend
MajestyMatte
Artisan MajestyMatte
Monarchy Majesty 6Matte
Monarchy Majesty 7Matte
Neck Colors
JP6Standard - Natural; Optional - Matching painted headstock
JP6 BFRBlack
JPXColor matches body
JPXIColor matches body
JP12Color matches body
JP13Color matches body
JP15Color matches body
JP16Standard – Natural with finished headstock
MajestyColor matches body
Artisan MajestyColor matches body
Monarchy Majesty 6Color matches body
Monarchy Majesty 7Color matches body
Tuning Machines
JP6Schaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JP6 BFRSchaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JPXSchaller M6-IND locking in black finish with black buttons
JPXISchaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JP12Schaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JP13Schaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JP15Schaller M6-IND locking with pearl buttons
JP16Schaller M6LA in black finish with black buttons
MajestySchaller M6-IND locking in chrome
Artisan MajestySchaller M6-IND locking in gold
Monarchy Majesty 6Schaller M6-IND locking
Monarchy Majesty 7Schaller M6-IND locking
Neck Attachment
JP65 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JP6 BFR5 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JPX5 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JPXI5 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JP125 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JP135 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JP155 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
JP165 bolts - perfect alignment with no shifting; Sculpted neck joint allows smooth access to higher frets
MajestyThrough neck design
Artisan MajestyThrough neck design
Monarchy Majesty 6Through neck design
Monarchy Majesty 7Through neck design
Controls
JP6500kohm volume and tone - .022µF tone capacitor
JP6 BFR500kohm volume, 500kohm push/pull tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
JPX500kohm volume and tone - .022µF tone capacitor
JPXI500kohm volume, 500kohm push/pull tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
JP12500kohm volume, 500kohm push/pull tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
JP13Custom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
JP15Custom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
JP16Custom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
MajestyCustom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
Artisan MajestyCustom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
Monarchy Majesty 6Custom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
Monarchy Majesty 7Custom Music Man® active preamp; push/push volume for gain boost, 500kohm push/push passive tone for custom 2 pickup configurations - .022µF tone capacitor
Switching
JP63-way toggle pickup selector; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector (when applicable)
JP6 BFR3-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JPX5-way lever pickup selector; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JPXI3-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JP123-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JP133-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JP153-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector
JP163-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration
Majesty3-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector, momentary mono/stereo output knob (Piezo Volume)
Artisan Majesty3-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector, momentary mono/stereo output knob (Piezo Volume)
Monarchy Majesty 63-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector, momentary mono/stereo output knob (Piezo Volume)
Monarchy Majesty 73-way toggle pickup selector, with custom center position configuration; 3-way toggle piezo/magnetic selector, momentary mono/stereo output knob (Piezo Volume)
Pickups
JP6HH - 1 DiMarzio LiquiFire - neck; 1 DiMarzio Crunch Lab - bridge
JP6 BFRHH - 1 DiMarzio LiquiFire - neck; 1 DiMarzio Crunch Lab - bridge
JPXHH - 1 DiMarzio Liquifire - neck; 1 DiMarzio Crunch Lab – bridge; Piezo bridge pickup
JPXIHH - 1 DiMarzio Liquifire - neck; 1 DiMarzio Crunch Lab – bridge; Piezo bridge pickup
JP12HH - 1 DiMarzio Liquifire - neck; 1 DiMarzio Crunch Lab – bridge; Piezo bridge pickup
JP13HH - DiMarzio Illuminators; Piezo bridge pickup
JP15HH - DiMarzio Illuminators; Piezo bridge pickup
JP16HH - DiMarzio Sonic Ecstasy
MajestyHH - DiMarzio Illuminators; Piezo bridge pickup
Artisan MajestyHH - DiMarzio Illuminators; Piezo bridge pickup
Monarchy Majesty 6HH - DiMarzio Sonic Ecstasy; Piezo bridge pickup
Monarchy Majesty 7HH - DiMarzio Sonic Ecstasy; Piezo bridge pickup
Left Handed
JP6Yes-Piezo only
JP6 BFRNo
JPXNo
JPXINo
JP12No
JP13No
JP15No
JP16No
MajestyNo
Artisan MajestyNo
Monarchy Majesty 6No
Monarchy Majesty 7No

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3 Comments

  1. PLEASE NOTIFY ME WHEN A NEW VIDEO COMES FOR THE NEW JP 16
    THANKS
    JULIO Q

  2. Finally a nice guide on all the Petruccis out there! I still love my modern fully loaded JP6 mystic dream with stock pickups and Dargie Delight II JP6 BFR w crunch/liqui. Amazing guitars!!!

  3. I think there are some mistakes in the weight of the different models.
    The wight of the JPXI 6 strings is the same as the JPXI 7 strings? the same for JP12
    I have a JP11 and a JP15 and the 15 is definitely lighter,it´s body is made of lightweight african majogany and the 11 is alder, I think that makes some difference.

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